The Cooperatives have been playing an important role in our agricultural
and rural economy. They are
engaged in several economic activities such as disbursement of credit,
distribution of agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers,
agro-chemicals and in arranging
storage, processing and marketing of farm produce.
Cooperatives enable farmers in getting good quality inputs at a
reasonable price as well as in getting remunerative returns for their farm
produce when marketed through cooperatives.
The cooperative agro-processing units add value to their precious
farm produce such as milk, sugarcane, cotton, fruits and vegetables and
thus facilitate better returns.
The cooperative sector in India has emerged as one of the largest in the
world with more than 5.28 lakh societies of various types with a
membership of more than 22.88 crore and working capital of Rs.2856433500
thousand as on 31st March 2002. Almost 100 percent villages
have been covered under the cooperative fold and about 67 percent of the
rural household are the members of the cooperative institutions.
The Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Govt. of India
is implementing various Central Sector and Centrally Sponsored Schemes to
promote the cooperatives in the country.
The Plan Schemes for the year 2002-2003 are given below:
Education and Training
The Government of India has been implementing a Central Sector Scheme
for Cooperative Education and Training through the National Cooperative
Union of India (NCUI) and National Council for Cooperative Training (NCCT).
The Government of India is providing 100% grants-in-aid to NCCT for
conducting Cooperative Training Programme in the country. NCUI is getting
100% grants-in aid for implementing the special scheme for Intensification
of cooperative education in the cooperatively under developed States and 20% for approved
through the Vaikunth Mehta National Institute of Cooperative Management (VAMNICOM),
Pune, 5 Regional Institutes of Cooperative Management (RICMs) and 14
Institutes of Cooperative Management (ICMs) located in various states.
VAMNICOM, Pune imparts training to the senior level personnel in
Cooperative Departments and Organizations. The training requirements of
middle level personnel in the cooperative sector are being met by the
RICMs and ICMs. Training to the lower level cooperative functionaries is
being provided by the Junior Cooperative Training Centres run by the State
Governments/ State Cooperative Unions. During the year 2002-03, up to 30th
November, 2002, VAMNICOM, Pune conducted 55 programmes with the
participation of 1804 persons while RICMs and ICMs put together trained
20670 persons under 792 programmes up to 30th November, 2002.
implementing a Special Scheme for Intensification of Cooperative Education
through 48 Cooperative Education Field Projects located in 26
cooperatively underdeveloped States/ Union Territories. Besides, NCUI is
monitoring the education programmes being implemented by the State
Cooperative Unions. During the year 2002-03, up to 31st
December, 2002, 868909 persons have been educated by the NCUI under
various programmes. The outlay earmarked for implementing the Cooperative
Education and Training programmes during the year 2002-2003 is Rs.40,95,00
thousand including Rs.2,25,00 thousand for the N.E. region.
Education and Training Activities in the North Eastern Region
Under the special scheme for intensification of cooperative
education in cooperatively under-developed states, Government of India
through NCUI provides 100% financial assistance to these States which
include the North Eastern region. NCUI has established 6 field projects
for such purpose in the North-Eastern region. These projects have made
tangible impact in improving the income of members of self-help groups and
cooperatives. Out of 20 training institutes under NCCT, to train
intermediate level personnel in cooperative
departments and organizations,
two Institutes of Cooperative Management (ICMs) are located in the North
Eastern Region, at Imphal (Manipur) and at Guwahati (Assam). The outlay
earmarked for implementing Cooperative Education and Training Programmes
in the NE Region during the year 2002-03 is Rs.2,25,00 thousand.
With the overall objective of bringing women in the
cooperative fold from grass root levels by informal approach and to
revitalize and promote women participation in group activities ; and to
improve the socio-economic condition of women of selected blocks, NCUI is
now running 4 exclusive women development projects located at Shimoga
(Karnataka), Berhampur (Orissa), Manipur (Imphal) and Bhopal (MP) under
the Special Scheme of Intensification of Cooperative Education in the
cooperatively under-developed States. These 4 exclusive women
developmental projects have formed 502 self-help groups with membership of
8010 as on 31.12.2002. Besides, each field project has got a special women
development component. Under this component,
women are organized into self-help groups and are helped to develop thrift
habits. Women are also given training to undertake income-generating
activities with the help of their own resources or by borrowing from
cooperatives. The projects personnel help them in marketing their produce
in the local market and by organizing melas /exhibitions.
Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)
established in March, 1963 under an act of Parliament as successor
organisation to the National Cooperative Development and Warehousing Board
set up in 1956, in pursuance of the recommendations of the All India Rural
Credit Survey Committee (1954) under the aegis of the Reserve Bank of
NCDC has emerged
as a national development financing institution for the Cooperative Sector
in the country. A major
objective of the corporation is to promote, strengthen and develop the
institution of farmers’ cooperatives for increasing production and
productivity and instituting post harvest facilities for augmenting
income. The Corporation’s
focus is on programmes of agricultural inputs, processing, storage and
marketing of agricultural produce and supply of consumer goods in rural
areas. In the non-farm
sector, the Corporation’s endeavor is to equip cooperatives with
facilities to promote income generating streams of activities with special
focus on weaker sections of the community/rural poor, such as handlooms,
sericulture, poultry, fisheries, etc.
The Government of India implements its cooperative
development programmes through the NCDC.
During the year 2002-2003 (as on 31.12.2002), the Corporation
disbursed an assistance of Rs.3497100 thousand
towards this. The main programmes implemented through NCDC are
Integrated Cooperative Development Project, Development of Cooperative
Rural Growth Centres in Bihar (EEC assisted), Assistance to Cooperative
Marketing, Processing and Storage programmes in Cooperatively
Under-developed States/Union Territories, Share Capital participation in
Cooperative Sugar Mills and Share Capital Participation in Cooperative
(i) Sugar Factories
During the year 2001-2002, NCDC has released an amount of Rs.566600
thousand to the cooperative sugar factories under various programmes.
Cumulatively, as on 31.12.2002, the Corporation had released an assistance
of Rs.14741500 thousand for the development of sugar industry.
In order to improve the economic condition of the cotton growers as well
as handloom and powerloom weavers and to consolidate the gains achieved so
far, NCDC continued to provide financial assistance to the spinning mills
and cotton ginning and pressing units in the cooperative sector.
During the year 2002-2003 (as on 31.12.2002), NCDC released
financial assistance of Rs.38000 thousand under the scheme.
NCDC has been
making systematic and sustained efforts to assist cooperatives for
creation of additional storage capacity for facilitating expanded
operations of cooperatives in the marketing of outputs, distribution of
inputs and sale of consumer articles.
The storage capacity assisted by the Corporation and owned by
cooperatives has increased from 11 lakh tonne in 1962-63 to 139.32 lakh
tonne by the end of March, 2002.
(as on 31.12.2002), NCDC has released a total amount of Rs.104100 thousand for cooperative
storage and cold storage purposes under various programmes.
Integrated Cooperative Development Projects
implementing the scheme of Integrated Cooperative Development Projects in
the rural backdrop in selected districts.
An amount of Rs.107500 thousand was released for implementation of
various Integrated Cooperative Development Projects during 2002-2003 (as
on 31.12.2002). The
cumulative assistance released by NCDC to State Government for ICD
Projects stood at Rs.6013700 thousand up to 31.12.2002.
Cooperatives in Under-Developed States
programmes and their funding in cooperatively under-developed states viz.
States in the entire East and North-Eastern Region, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan and Union Territories of Lakshadweep and
Andaman & Nicobar Islands remained a major thrust area of NCDC during
the year under report. The
financing pattern of the Corporation is to provide more assistance on
softer terms including an element of subsidy.
Further in order to accelerate the pace of cooperative development
in North-Eastern Region and Sikkim, NCDC has categorized this group of
States as “Cooperatively Least-Developed States” which are provided
assistance upto 95 percent of the cost of each project.
the year 2002-2003 (as on 31.12.2002), the Corporation disbursed an amount
of Rs.117500 thousand for
various cooperative development programmes in these states under its
Development of Cooperative Rural Growth Centres (EAP)
This is an on-going scheme
being assisted by EEC. On the
recommendation of the EEC’s Monitoring and Evaluation Mission, the
Project Implementation activities were carried out from January, 1998 to
March, 2001 for processing of payments and evaluation related to project
closure with additional components i.e. additional margin money, PACS
Banking facility, PACS Manager Subsidy, Women income Generating Unit/Programmes,
training and maintenance of project cell.
During the extended period of project, an assistance of Rs.161870
thousand was released to State Govt. of Bihar for funding of activities
thereby taking the cumulative releases to Rs.556120 thousand as on
Strengthening of National Level
Progressive expansion and diversification of Cooperative Movement has led
to organisation of National Level Cooperative institutions in different
fields of economic activities with a view to accelerate the pace of
cooperative development in various directions and also to strengthen the
cooperatives in their economic activities in a coordinated manner.
National level cooperative federations have been playing a
significant leadership role. These
federations mostly are promotional in nature excepting a few which are
involved in commercial activities. Government of India has been providing
both policy and financial support to these federations.
The objective of scheme is to assist the national level federations
to undertake in an extensive manner, promotion and research activities,
improvement in infrastructure facilities and also to assist in building up
their equity base. During the
year 2002-03, as assistance of Rs.15000 thousand would be provided to
these federations out of which Rs.4000 thousand has been released up to
phenomenal expansion of cooperatives in almost all the sectors, signs of
structural weaknesses and regional imbalances have also become apparent.
The reason for such weaknesses would be attributed to the large
percentage of dormant membership, heavy dependence on Government
assistance, poor deposit mobilization of members, lack of professional
management, mounting overdues, etc. Concrete steps have now been initiated
to revitalize the cooperatives to make them vibrant democratic
organisations with economic viability and active participation of members.
Policy on Cooperatives has been formulated in consultation with
States/Union Territories. The objective of the National Policy is to
facilitate all round development of the cooperatives in the country.
Under this policy, cooperatives would be provided necessary
support, encouragement and assistance, so as to ensure that they work as
autonomous, self-reliant and democratically managed institutions
accountable to their members and make a significant contribution to the
national economy, particularly in areas which require people's
participation and community efforts. This is all the more important in
view of the fact that still a sizeable segment of the population in the
country is below poverty line and the cooperatives are the only
appropriate mechanism to lend support to this segment of the people.
order to provide greater functional autonomy to cooperatives and to reduce
bureaucratic interference and to professionalise the management of these
institutions, based on the recommendations of Ch.Brahm Prakash Committee
and Mirdha Committee, the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 2002 was
enacted and came into force with effect from 19th August 2002
repealing the Multi-State Cooperative Societies Act, 1984.
Multi State Cooperative Societies, Rules 2002 has been
notified vide Gazette Notification dated 2.12.2002.
Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation
Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED) is the
apex level organisation of Marketing Cooperatives in India set up on
2.10.1958. The main
objectives of NAFED are to organise, promote and develop marketing,
processing and storage of agricultural, horticultural and forest produce,
distribution of agricultural machinery, implements and other inputs and to
undertake inter-state import and export
of agricultural produce. Being
an apex body for the cooperative marketing structure, it
support to the farmers in
collaboration with state level
cooperative marketing federations and primary cooperative marketing
societies through its headquarters at Delhi,
four regional offices at Delhi, Calcutta and Chennai and 29
branches located in the State Capitals and other important cities, five
Agro-service Centres, for sales outlets of processed foods and five
continues to be the central nodal agency for procurement of oilseeds and
pulses, under price Support Scheme (PSS) at the Minimum Support Price
declared by the Government of India on the basis of the recommendation
made by the Commission for Agricultural Cost & Prices (CACP) and for
procurement of horticultural commodities under Market Intervention Scheme
(MIS). NAFED also undertakes buffer stocking of onions and pulses on
behalf of Central Government for checking price rise in the consumer
markets. It has opened NAFED Bazar for making available various
consumer items of daily use at a reasonable price.
order to give remunerative prices to the farmers of oilseeds and pulses,
this Department is implementing Price Support Scheme through NAFED by
procuring the notified oilseeds and pulses at the Minimum Support Price
fixed by the Government for each crop season.
NAFED undertakes procurement of oilseeds and pulses as and when
prices fall below the MSP level.
2002-03 (up to 15.01.2003), NAFED has procured 4,69,536 MTs of mustard
seed valuing Rs.6714400 thousand, 2020 MT sunflower seed valuing Rs.28700
thousand and 3955 MTs copra valuing Rs.231800 thousand under the Price
Support Scheme in the states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Lakshdweep, A&N
Islands thereby helping the farmers in getting remunerative prices for
their produce. NAFED has also
targetted procurement of 15,000 MTs urad valuing Rs.225500 thousand and
10,000 MTs arhar valuing Rs.149200 thouand under Price Support Scheme upto
request of State /UT Government horticultural commodities are purchased
through NAFED and the concerned State agencies under Market Intervention
Scheme to the benefit of farmers when the prices of that horticultural
commodities fall below the economic level.
Women in Cooperative
in North Eastern States
Last Updated On - 01 April, 2005