The wide range of agro-climatic conditions of India is conducive for growing a large variety of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, including root and tuber crops, mushroom, ornamental crops, medicinal and aromatic plants, spices and plantation crops like coconut, arecanut, cashew and cocoa. The Government of India has recognized horticulture crops as a means of diversification in agriculture in an eco friendly manner through efficient land use, optimum utilization of natural resources, besides, creating opportunities for generating employment, particularly for unemployed youths and women folk. Investments in horticulture in the previous years have resulted in increased availability of horticultural produce in the rural and urban areas due to increased production. India has maintained leadership in the production of many commodities like mango, banana, acid lime, coconut, arecanut, cashew, ginger, turmeric and black pepper and India is presently the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
1: Estimated Area and Production of Major Horticultural Crops
The production scenario of some of the major
horticultural crops during the Ninth Five Year Plan is described hereunder
The major fruits grown in India are mango, banana, citrus, pineapple, papaya, guava, sapota, jackfruit, litchi and grape in the tropical and sub-tropical regions ; apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond and walnut in the temperate zones; aonla, ber, pomegranate, annona, fig, phalsa in the arid regions of the country. India accounts for about 10 per cent of the production of fruits in the world with an annual production of 45.37 million tonnes during 2000-01 from an area of 3.89 million hectares. There has been a marginal reduction in the production of fruits during 2000-01 when compared to 1999-2000, which has been mainly due to some reduction in the production of banana in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and Gujarat, mango in Bihar and apple in Jammu and Kashmir.
Vegetables including root and tuber crops occupy an important place in
diversification of agriculture and have played pivotal role in food and
nutritional security of ever growing population of our country. In India, about
40 kinds of vegetables belonging to different groups are being cultivated. These
include solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, leguminous, cruciferous (cole crops), root
crops and leafy vegetables. Major vegetable crops grown in the country are
tomato, onion, brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, okra and peas. Significant
achievements have been obtained in terms of production, which has increased to
93.9 million tonnes during 2000-01 from 58.5 million tonnes during 1991-92.
India is next only to China in the production of vegetables. India contributes
about 13.7 per cent to the world vegetable production and occupies first
position in the production of cauliflower, second in onion and third in cabbage
in the world. The production of
vegetables increased by 3.4% during the past one year.
of high yielding cultivars, hybrids and disease and pest resistant varieties
and a sound seed production programme with suitable production programme
with suitable production technologies have largely contributed to higher
production and productivity. A
scheme on Integrated Development of Vegetables including root and tuber
crops is being implemented in the country.
The major focus is on replacement of old cultivars with improved high
yielding varieties, dissemination of latest improved technology on
production and post harvest management through demonstration, training and
visits, mechanization, popularization
of on-farm Zero Energy Cool Chambers, handling and market intelligence.
India is known as the home of spices and a wide variety of spices like black pepper, cardomom (small and large), ginger, garlic, turmeric, chilli and a large variety of tree and seed spices. Almost all the states in the country grow one or more spices. The major spice producing States are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. North Eastern region and Andaman & Nicobar Islands have potential areas cultivated for spices, particularly organically. While black pepper and small cardamom are mainly confined to south India, ginger and turmeric are grown in S.E, N.E region and in many other States. Large cardamom is mainly confined to Sikkim. Cumin, coriander and fenugreek are confined to northern States. During 2000-01, production of spices was 3.02 million tonnes from an area of 2.5 million ha. The spice production registered an increase of 3.8% during the year.
Coconut is a versatile crop and about 10 million people depend on its cultivation, processing and related activities. It is grown mainly along the coastal states of the country and also in the North-Eastern region. Coconut is grown over an area of 1.84 million ha with a production of 8.67 million tonnes. There has been a marginal increase of production in coconut by 3% during the year. India ranks third in total production of coconuts among 90 coconut producing countries in the world.
of Growers, Partnership/Proprietary Firms, Companies, Corporations,
Cooperatives, Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees, Marketing
Agro Industry Corporations.
Under this scheme, so far 596 projects have been sanctioned creating
a cold storage capacity of 26.91 lakh MT with NHB subsidy of Rs. 1919700
thousand. This has attracted a private investment of Rs. 7967800 thousand.
Development of Commercial Horticulture through Production and Post
The back ended capital susbsidy @ 20 per cent of the total project
cost to a maximum of Rs. 2500 thousand. However, for the North Eastern
Tribal/Hilly Areas, maximum limit of subsidy would be Rs. 3000 thousand per
project. Under this scheme, so far 504 projects have been sanctioned with
NHB subsidy of Rs. 417100 thousand.
Technology Development and Transfer of Promotion of Horticulture.
Under this, grant is available upto 100 per cent from Rs. 1000
thousand to Rs. 2500 thousand. So
far, 412 projects have been sanctioned under this activity.
Establishment of Nutritional Gardens in Rural Areas
The assistance is available for seed minikits, cool chambers and demonstrations @ Rs. 250 , Rs. 2500 and Rs. 5000 respectively.
(v) Market Information Service
for Horticulture Crops
There are 33 market centers for collecting and disseminating
information on daily basis in respect of fruits and vegetables.
For the benefit of the public, NHB brought out a CD-ROM on
(vi) Horticulture Promotion Service
Under this scheme, 100 per cent cost of study for Techno Economic feasibility studies for development of horticulture is provided.
Development Board Programmes
The Coconut Development Board implements programmes for the
Integrated Development of Coconut Industry and Technology Mission on Coconut
at a total outlay of Rs. 400000 thousand during 2002-03. To achieve the
objectives of integrated development of the crop, product diversification
and by-product utilization, the major thrust areas identified are production
and distribution of quality planting material, expansion of area under
coconut especially in potential and non-traditional areas, improving
productivity of coconut in major coconut producing states, developing of
technology in post harvest processing, marketing activities and the
integrated control of major pests and diseases. Under the scheme
“Establishment of Regional Coconut Nurseries”, it is targeted to produce
2.2 lakh TxD hybrid seedlings and 4 lakhs good quality seedlings and an area
of 2000 ha. would be covered under fresh planting under Area Expansion of
Coconut by providing an assistance of Rs. 8,000/- per ha. Under the
Productivity Improvement Programme, it is proposed to remove one lakh
disease affected palms and to establish 400 ha. demonstration blocks and 200
organic manure units. India is now the premier coconut producing country in
the world with a total production of 8.7 million tonnes from an area of 1.84
million ha. In productivity
too, India stands in the forefront among the other coconut growing
Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture
in North Eastern Region including Sikkim (TMNE)
Sponsored Scheme on Technology Mission for Integrated Development of
Horticulture in North Eastern region including Sikkim was approved with an
outlay of Rs. 2293800 thousand for Ninth Five Year Plan period.
The scheme aims at establishing convergence and synergy among
numerous ongoing governmental programmes through
horizontal and vertical
integration of these programmes which will ensure adequate, appropriate,
timely and concurrent attention to all the links in the production, post
harvest and consumption chain. The Small Farmer’s Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) is
involved in coordinating the scheme.
The Technology Mission is being implemented through four Mini
Missions: Mini Mission-I involving research is coordinated and implemented
by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
Mini Mission-II covering production and productivity improvement
activities is coordinated by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
and implemented by the Agriculture/Horticulture Departments of the States.
Mini Mission-III involving post harvest management, marketing and export is
coordinated by National Horticulture Board and Mini Mission-IV involving
processing is coordinated and implemented by the Ministry of Food Processing
Industries. State level SFACs have also been constituted in most of the
implementing States for monitoring and implementing the programme at the
grass root level. The implementation of this scheme started from 2001-02.
During the year 2002-03, the scheme is being continued with an
allocation of Rs.1200000 thousand. The details are given in Annexure-I. Under the Technology Mission, funds to the states are made
available on the basis yearly action plans/proposals, which are approved by
the State Level Steering Committee under the Chief Secretary of the
The physical achievements during 2001-02 have been satisfactory. The States of Sikkim, Nagaland, Mizoram have shown good performance. The performance of Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya is satisfactory. Arunachal Pradesh initially was showing very good performance, but the pace has slowed down which needs to be addressed by the State. Manipur has picked up and after persuasions has submitted the action plan for 2002-03 which has been finalized and funds released.
Major physical achievements
for North Eastern Region during 2001-02 are:
i) Area expansion – 11592 ha.; ii) Community tanks – 178 nos.; iii) Tube wells - 102 nos.; iv) Green Houses – 262 nos.; v) Big nurseries – 19 nos.; vi) Small nurseries – 35 nos.; vii) Training of farmers – 7417 nos.; viii)Training of farmers outside the state – 940 nos.; ix) Organic farming – 606 units.; x) Earthworm units – 55 units.; xi) Integrated pest management – 1931 ha.; xii) Wholesale markets – 11 nos. under progress; xiii) Rural primary markets – 56 nos. under progress.; xvi) Grading laboratories – 13 nos. under progress; xv) New processing units – 6 nos. under progress; xvi) Upgradation of existing units – 2 nos. under progress.
Programme for Development of Horticulture in Tibal/Hilly Areas
Horticulture has been the mainstay in hilly and tribal areas. Under
the programme of horticulture development, major benefits have accrued in
traditional area having better potential with infrastructural facilities and
adequate economic resources with farmers to exploit opportunities of new
technologies. Very little benefits have reached the tribal and hill farmers.
Therefore, a Central Sector Scheme “Integrated Programme for
Development of Horticulture in Hilly and Tribal Area” was launched during
was implemented during 2001-02 in five tribal and one hilly district on
pilot basis through the identified state designated agencies, which included
cooperative societies, autonomous organizations, NGO, etc. to whom funds
were released directly. The
scheme was successfully implemented and has created necessary awareness
among tribals and backward people in hilly areas about the importance of
horticulture for increasing their income from small holdings and creating
additional employment opportunities. Under
this scheme, infrastructural facilities have also been created to develop
growth centers for development in the district.
During Tenth Plan, the scheme has been extended to 20 districts, which include six districts taken up during Ninth Plan. Of these 14 are tribal districts and 6 hilly districts. An outlay of Rs. 105000 thousand has been provided for implementing the scheme during 2002-03. The Project Approval Committee has approved in principle, project for the districts of Adilabad, Almora, Bastar, Dahod, keonjhar and Ranchi with an outlay of Rs. 2383700 thousand for 2002-03. Besides, the state government officials have been sensitized to identify the state designated agencies for the newly selected districts.
Resource Development in Horticulture
A Central Sector Scheme entitled “Human Resource Development in Horticulture” was launched during the Ninth Five Year Plan with effect from 1999-2000 with an outlay of Rs 50000 thousand. The objective of this scheme is to promote rapid growth of horticulture by reducing the gap in knowledge and skill, both managerial and technical by training people to become entrepreneurs or self-employed in the horticulture sector and to upgrade the knowledge of departmental staff. The scheme has four components, (a) training of supervisors, (b) training of gardeners, (c) training of entrepreneurs, and (d) training of departmental staff. The training programme for the supervisors/entrepreneurs is being organized through five State Agricultural Universities ( SAUs), one ICAR Institute and one Krishi Vigyan Kentras (KVK) whereas the entrepreneur’s training programme is being organized through two SAUs an done ICAR Institute who are involve din organizing training programme for the supervisors. The gardeners’ training is being organized through three SAUs, two KVKs and one NGO. Two new institutes, one each for supervisors and gardeners training, were included during the year 2001-02. The departmental staff is trained under various on-going training programmes organized by ICAR institutes and SAUs. An amount of Rs. 13,460 thousand were released to 11 training institutes during 1999-2000 and 2000-01 and Rs. 300 thousand were released to the State Governments during 2000-01. In pursuance to the decision of the Planning Commission, it has been decided to phase out the scheme during the Tenth Plan. A token outlay of Rs. 10000 thousand has been provided for the scheme during 2002-03.
Programmes of North Eastern States