Indian horticulture sector contributes about 38% to the agriculture Gross Value Added (GVA) making very significant contribution to the Indian economy. Apart from ensuring nutritional security of the nation, it provides alternate rural employment opportunities, diversification in farm activities, and enhanced income to farmers. India is currently producing about 283.5 million tones of horticulture produce which has surpassed the food grain production, that too from much less area (24.2 M Ha. for horticulture against 125 M. ha. for food grains). Productivity of horticulture crops is much higher compared to productivity of food grains (11.96 tones/ha against 2 tones/ha.). India has emerged as world leader in the production of a variety of fruits like mango and banana and is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables. Besides, India has maintained its dominance in the production of spices, coconut and cashewnut. Among the new crops, kiwi, gherkins, kinnow, date palm and oil palm have been successfully introduced for commercial cultivation in the country. Launch of National Horticulture Mission has spurred the production and productivity of horticultural crops. Productivity of horticultural crops has increased by about 32% between 2004-05 and 2015-16. Increase in demand for horticultural produce due to greater health awareness, rising income, export demands and increasing population poses the challenge for further increasing the production and productivity of horticultural crops. The issue of climate change has thrown up greater uncertainties and risks, further imposing constraints on production systems.