Ministry Of Agriculture,Government of India

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Frequently Asked Questions

Agricultural Census

Question : What is history of Agriculture Census in India?

The Agriculture Census is a Central Sector Plan Scheme under which data on structure of agricultural operational holdings is collected. So far eight Agriculture Censuses with five yearly intervals beginning with 1970-71 have been completed and the ninth one with agricultural year 2010-11 is in progress. The data available under Agriculture Census are for the years 1970-71, 1976-77, 1980-81, 1985-86, 1990-91, 1995-96, 2000-01 and 2005-06 so far for use. In addition to Agriculture Census, Input Survey is also conducted by this Division in the year immediately after the reference year of Agriculture Census operation. Under this survey, data are collected on various inputs used, like fertilizers, pesticides, IPM, agricultural implements and machinery live stock, credit and seeds. The data under this survey are available for the years 1976-77, 1981-82, 1986-87, 1991-92, 1996-97, 2001-02 and 2006-07.

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Agriculture Marketing

Question : What is Agmarknet portal about?

Agmarknet portal is a govt. of India portal on agricultural marketing backed by a wide area information network connecting agricultural markets, State Marketing boards/Directorates and also providing linkages to the websites of the important National and International Organisations.

Question : What are the contents of Agmarknet Portal?

The Portal provides both static and dynamic information relating to agricultural marketing in India . The static information is about infrastructure- related (Storage, warehousing, Cold Storage, grading and packing facilities), Market – related (market fee/ charges, weighment, handling, market functionaries, development programmes, market laws, composition of market Committees, income and expenditure, etc) and Promotion-related information (Standards, Grades, Labelling, Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary requirements, Pledge Financing, Marketing Credit and new opportunities available, etc.). The dynamic part comprise Price-related information comprising maximum, minimum and model prices of varieties, total arrivals and dispatches with destination.

Question : What types of daily data are disseminated to the Portal?

The portal provides easy access to commodity-wise, variety-wise daily prices and arrivals information of more than 2000 varieties and about 300 commodities from the wholesale markets spread all over the country. Prices and arrivals trend reports for important commodities, futures prices from Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited and NCDEX are being reported online on the portal.

Question : What is the method of collection and dissemination of data?

The portal is run by the Directorate of Marketing & Inspection with the technical assistance of NIC as consultant on Turn-key basis. The computer facility has been provided at different markets at grassroot level and connected to internet with DMI Hqrs. The Agriculture Produce Markets enters the data in the prescribed format, using the customized application software “Agmark”. The information is either sent through State Government or directly to DMI Hqrs. Faridabad. From Faridabad it is uploaded to the portal. The data from DMI Hqrs. is transferred to portal thrice in a day, first at 11.00 hrs,14.30 hrs. and then at 16.00 hrs. except on market/public holidays.

Question : How many markets have been covered so far under this project?

So far 3308 markets across the country have been covered under the project as on 31 March 2013.

Question : Is there any linkages of other organizations with this website?

Yes, CODEX, FAO,APEDA, Trade Online, Commodities Exchanges like NCDEX, NMCE, and other related marketing organizations/Institutions are linked with this website.

Question : Who are the main users of Agmarknet Website?

The main users of Agmarknet website are Farmers , traders, Reseach Institue, exporters, Commodity Boards/Various Government Departments, ECO-STAT. The linkages are also provided to Kisan, Krishi World, Indian Agro-net, Agriwatch, Indian Dairy Industry, Agro-India, Forwards Markets Commission, National Multi Exchange of India Limited and NCDEX through the portal to form a close user-group.

Question : What are the other information that can be accessed from Agmarknet?

The portal provides information on commodity profiles, reports of important research studies, CODEX Standards of agricultural commodities, markets profile, etc. E-mail addresses of the agencies involved in agricultural marketing sector are progressively being published for public access for facilitating direct interaction.

Question : What is the impact of Agmarknet Portal?

The portal is considered as an important flagship of the Government of India Schemes and efforts are afoot to make it of real use/service to the farmers. About 2100 markets are reporting data every month.Nokia, BITCOE, IKSL , a Cooperative Sector company, has been involved in disseminating the price information to a large network of farmers cooperatives, Public sector banks, commodity exchanges, news papers, etc. are using the site for publishing the data on prices of agricultural commodities apart from other international organizations.

Question : What is meant by regional portals and how many are developed?

The regional portals are being developed with the help of NIC at State Hqrs. of respective states to facilitate dissemination of market information in regional languages for the benefit of farmers.As on 31 March 2013, 16 State level portals are operational.

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National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS)

Question : What are the objectives of National Agricultural Insurance Scheme ?

The objectives of the NAIS are as under

  • To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crop as a result of natural calamities, pests & diseases so as to restore their credit worthiness for ensuing season.
  • To encourage the fanners to adopt progressive farming practices, high value in-puts and higher technology in Agriculture.
  • To help stabilize farm incomes, particularly in disaster years.

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Question : What are the various risks covered under the scheme?

The Scheme provides comprehensive risk insurance for yield losses due to :

  • Natural Fire and Lightening, Storm, Hailstorm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Hurricane, Tornado Flood, Inundation and Landslide.
  • Drought, Dry spells.
  • Pests / Diseases etc.

Question : How many states are participating in the scheme?

At present this scheme is being implemented in 25 States and 2 UTs (except Punjab, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh among the States and Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep among the UTs).

Question : What are the various crops covered under the scheme?

The Scheme covers following crops

  • Food crops (Cereals, Millets & Pulses): Some of the crops covered in various States are Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi, Korra, Kodo-kutki, Green gram, Black gram, Red gram, Horse gram, Gram, Moth etc.
  • Oilseeds: Some of the crops covered in various States are Groundnut, Sunflower, Soya bean, Safflower, Castor, Sesamum, Niger etc.
  • Annual Commercial/Annual Horticultural crops : Sugarcane, Cotton , Potato, Onion, Ginger, Turmeric, Banana, Pineapple, Jute, Tapioca, Chilli, Cumin, Coriander, Isabgol, Methi etc.

The crops are selected for insurance if the past yield data for 10 years are available, and the State Govt agrees to conduct requisite number of Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) during the proposed season.

At present there are 35 different crops during Kharif and 30 different Rabi season are being insured under National Agricultural Insurance Scheme in the country.

Question : Who is eligible to be covered under the scheme? .

All farmers growing insurable crops and availing Seasonal Agricultural Operations (SAO) loans from Banks / PACS are compulsorily covered under the Scheme by the Banks/ PACS, whereas the non-borrowing farmers growing insurable crops can also avail the benefit of the Scheme by submitting prescribed proposal forms at the nearest Banks/ PACS.

Question : How is this scheme administered ?

The Scheme is being implemented by Agriculture Insurance Company of India Limited (AICL) on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, through its Regional Offices located at 17 State capitals.

Question : What is the Unit of Insurance ?

The scheme operates on the basis of Area Approach i.e. defined areas for each notified crop for widespread calamities and individual assessment is done on experimental basis for localised calamities, such as, hailstorm, landslide, cyclone and flood in certain pre-notified areas. The size of unit area varies from State to State and crop to crop. Presently, the defined area is Block/ Mandal/ Taluka / Patwari halka / Nyayapanchayat/ Gram Panchayat/ Village, etc.

Question : What' s amount of sum insured under NAIS?

  • For loanee farmers

    Compulsory coverage : The amount of crop loan availed for the notified crop is the minimum amount of sum insured covered on compulsory basis.

    Optional Coverage : If the loanee-farmer so wishes he may insured his crop for a higher Sum Insured i.e, upto the value of Threshold Yield (i.e., guaranteed yield) which is called normal coverge even go for addtional coverage upto 150% value of average yield in the notified area. However, for additional coverage, the farmer has to pay premium at actuarial rate as notified by the State Government.

    The value of Sum Insured in such cases is arrived at by multiplying the threshold yield/ average yield with the latest available Minimum Support Price (MSP) announced by the Govt. or the market price provided by the State Govt. in case the MSP is not announced.

Finance

Question : What is the total budget of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation in BE 2013-2014?

The total budget allocation of the Agriculture Cooperation in BE 2013-2014 is Department.

Non-Plan : Rs. 324.50 crore and Plan : Rs. 21609.00 crore

Question : What is the percentage increase in Plan Budget of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation over RE for 2012-2013?

The percentage increase in Plan Budget of the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation over RE for 2012-2013 is 20.94%.

Question : Where can we find the scheme-wise details allocations of budget and release?

The scheme-wise details of the allocations of budget and release are available in the Website given below:

http://164.100.191.8/finance/

Integrated Nutrient Management

Question : What are Fertilizers?

Fertilizers are those substances which are enlisted in schedule-I of the Fertilizer (Control) Order, 1985 and also mixture of fertilizers and special mixture of fertilizers which are notified by the State Government. The Government o India has so far enlisted 75 substances in the schedule –I of FCO.

Question : What is the difference between mixture of fertilizer and complex fertilizers?

The complex fertilizer are those which contained to or more nutrient and during their production chemical reaction take place. The physical mixture also contains more then one nutrient but in their production no chemical reaction takes place and is produce by physical mixing two or more fertilizers with or without inert material.

Question : How can one start the business of selling of fertilizer?

The persons who intend to sell or carrying on the business of fertilizer is required to obtain Authorization letter from the notified authority.

Question : What is the procedure of obtaining the Authorization letter?

The person who intend to carry on the business either as whole sale dealer or retail dealer is required to submit ‘Memorandum of Intimation’ in form ‘ A 1’ to the notified Authority as per the terms and conditions specified therein along with the Certificate of source inform ‘O’ of FCO along with the fees prescribed by the concerned State Government in this regards.

Question : What is certificate of source?

Certificate of source means a certificate given by a State Government. Commodity Board. Manufacturer,” importer, pool handling agency or as the case may be, wholesale dealer indicating therein the source from which fertilizer for purpose of sale is obtained.

Question :Who is ‘Notified Authority’.

Notified Authority is appointed by the State Government for the purpose of grant of Authorization letter etc.

Question :Can or manufacture is also required to obtain Authorization letter?

Yes

Question : Who is a Dealer

Dealer is a person carrying on the business of selling fertilizers whether wholesale or retail or Industrial use & its includes manufacturer, Pool handling agency etc also.

Question :Can a person selling fertilizer of any specification?

No person shall sell any fertilizer of any specification.

Question : whether any specification has been specified by Government of India.

Yes, to Schedule –I of the FCO the Government .of India specified specification of fertilizer what the grades.

Question :For how much period the letter of Authorization is valid?

The letter of Authorization is valid for a period of Three years from the date of issue.

Question :Whether for carrying on the business of selling of fertiliser as wholesale or retail dealer a separate letter of Authorization is required?

yes

Question :How many fertilizer are there under the Price Control?

Only three fertilizer, namely, Urea, Zincated Urea & Anhydrous Ammonia.

Question :Who is fixing the standards of various Mixture of Fertilizer?

State Government

Question :Can any Permission is required to obtain from the State Government or Central Government for manufacturing of Mixture of Fertilizer?

Yes, The certificate of Manufacture is required to obtain from the concerned State Government.

Question : Whether any condition is required to fulfill before obtaining the Certificate of manufacture?

Yes, it is mandatory to possess Minimum Laboratory facilities.

Question : Any time period is fixed for grant of Certificate of Manufacture?

Yes, 45 days from the date of receipt of application.

Question : On the Refusal of grant of Certificate Of Manufacture whether any Provision of Appeal Exist? If Exist then the Authority to whom it is to be made/

Yes, The appeal against the non issue shall exist before the Appellate authority, appointed by the State Government.

Question : The period for which Certificate of Manufacture is valid?

Three Years from the date of issue

Question : Can the Certificate of Manufacture and Authorization letter be renewed?

Yes

Question : When can the application for Renewal be made?

The application in form ‘D’of FCO along with fee prescribed by State Government is required to be made to be made to the registering Authority for renewal before the Expiry of period of validity of Certificate of Manufacture.

Question : Can a manufacture prepared any grade of Mixture of fertilizer?

No, only such grade which are notified by State Government.

Question : What , is the procedure for obtaining Certificate of manufactures.

The applicant is required to apply in Form’D’ of FCO to the Registering Authority along with fee prescribed.

Question : Can the application of Renewal be made after the Expiry of the validity period?

Yes, one apply within one month from the date of expiry of validity period along with additional fee

Question : What is requirement to be complied by the manufacturer in regard to packing & marking?

Every container in which the fertilizer is packed shall be conspicuously be super scribed with the word fertilizer’.

Every container shall be so packed and sealed that the contents their of can not be tampered without baking the sealed. In case of hand-stitched bags of fertilizers manufacturer in India, a lead seal is required.On every bag it is required to print such particular as the controller specified time to time.

Question : Whether is non-standard fertilizer is allowed to be sold in the market ?

No

Question : To whom the non-standard fertilizer shall be disposed?

The non-standard fertilizer shall be disposed only to the fertilizer mixture manufacture, special mixture of fertilizer or to the research farm.

Question : Can the fertilizer be sold for the purpose other than use for agricultural purposes?

Yes but prior permission is required from the Central Government.

Question : Whether any Certificate of Registration is issued for sale of fertilizer for industrial purposes?

Yes

Question : Is there any provision for reprocessing of fertilizer?

Yes but the prior permission is required

Question : What is the procedure for obtaining the permission?

If any fertilizer dispatched for sale as deteriorated in quality during transits due to natural calamity and is not of prescribed standard, the manufacture within 15 days from the date of dispatch apply to the Central Govt. for reprocessing.

Question : Whether there is any procedure for referee analysis?

Yes

Question : To whom the request for re-analysis is to be made?

In case the sample is declared non-standard by the State Laboratory then its appeal for re-analysis is required to be made to the Appellate Authority appointed by the state Government. If in case the material is declared non-standard by the Central Govt. laboratory then the appeal of it lies to the controller, Central Government.

Question : Can an appeal against cancellation be made against the order of suspension and cancellation of authorization letter or certificate of registration/ manufacture

Yes

Question : Can the authorization letter, certificate of manufacture and certificate of registration be amended?

Yes.

Integrated Resources Management

NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DIVISION
What is Shifting Cultivation and its extent in the country?

Shifting cultivation (Jhum cultivation) is a practice of burning off natural vegetation, planting cultivated crops until soil fertility is exhausted, abandoning the site, moving (shifting) to new site ard returning to an earlier abandoned area that has re-grown the natural plant cover, and beginning the cycle again.

It is estimated that 22.78 lakh ha. is affected by the problem of shifting cultivation in the country. 19.91 lakh. ha. is located in North Eastern region, which is about 84% of the total problem area.

What is the land degradation scenario in the country? All India Soil and Land Survey has carried out Rapid Reconnaissance Survey (RR) of 132.6 million ha. area in the country, out of which 34.8 million ha. is regarded as the priority area .This Priority Area includes all kinds of degraded lands which require urgent attention for its sustained productivity and production.
What are the efforts being made by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation to develop land degradation in the country? The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is implementing various land based programmes, namely
  • Soil Conservation for Enhancing Productivity of Degraded Land in the Catchments of River Valley Projects and Flood Prone Rivers (RVP & FPR).
  • Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas in North Eastern Region (WDPSCA).
  • Reclamation of Alkali Soils (RAS).for the development of degraded lands in the country. The scheme RVP / FPR and RAS have been subsumed under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture
Where or in which states the programmes of controlling land degradation are being implemented? The states where land based programmes are being implemented are:
  • RVP/FPR- In all 28 states of India
  • WDPSCA-Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura
  • RAS- Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.
How much degraded lands have been treated so far under various schemes of the Ministry? An area of 58.74, 22.52 and 6.1 lakh ha. have been treated under RVP/FPR, WDPSCA and RAS scheme, respectively, upto 2003-04.
What is the role of NGOs in implementation of various land based programmes and procedures for allotment of funds to them? All land-based programmes namely RVP/FPR, WDPSCA and RAS are being implemented through the state Govts. The funds under these schemes are directly released to the state Govts. There is no provision to release funds to NGOs from Govt. of India (GOI) .

Macro Management Division

Question : What is Macro Management? How many schemes have been integrated in the formulation of Macro Management Scheme?

Macro Management means combination of different schemes to make it larger. 27 different schemes have been integrated to formulate this Scheme.

Question : What is the purpose of Macro Management Scheme?

The main purpose of the Macro Management Scheme is to provide flexibility to the States to develop and pursue activities on the basis of their regional priorities.

Question : How it is being implemented?

This Scheme is being implemented through the various agencies like State Agriculture, Horticulture, Soil Conservation, Forest Deptt. and other Implementing Agencies in the State.

Question : What are the subsidy rates and which are the items on which subsidy is available?

Subsidy per farmer or per activity should not exceed 25% of the cost or the present subsidy level approved under 27 identified schemes, which ever is lower. Subsidy is available under the Scheme on various components including agriculture implements such as Tractor, Power Tiller, Power Thrashers, Sprinklers and Plant Protection Equipments. Assistance is also available on certified quality seeds and IPM/Field demonstrations.

Question : Has the Govt. of India formulated separate guidelines for implementation of the Scheme?

Yes, there are separate guidelines for implementation of Macro Management Scheme.

Natural Resources Management

Question : What is Shifting Cultivation and its extent in the country?

Shifting cultivation (Jhum cultivation) is a practice of burning off natural vegetation, planting cultivated crops until soil fertility is exhausted, abandoning the site, moving (shifting) to new site ard returning to an earlier abandoned area that has re-grown the natural plant cover, and beginning the cycle again.

It is estimated that 22.78 lakh ha. is affected by the problem of shifting cultivation in the country. 19.91 lakh. ha. is located in North Eastern region, which is about 84% of the total problem area.

Question : What is the land degradation scenario in the country?

All India Soil and Land Survey has carried out Rapid Reconnaissance Survey (RR) of 132.6 million ha. area in the country, out of which 34.8 million ha. is regarded as the priority area .This Priority Area includes all kinds of degraded lands which require urgent attention for its sustained productivity and production.

Question : What are the efforts being made by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation to develop land degradation in the country?

The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is implementing various land based programmes, namely

  • Soil Conservation for Enhancing Productivity of Degraded Land in the Catchments of River Valley Projects and Flood Prone Rivers (RVP & FPR).
  • Watershed Development Project in Shifting Cultivation Areas in North Eastern Region (WDPSCA).
  • Reclamation of Alkali Soils (RAS).for the development of degraded lands in the country. The scheme RVP / FPR and RAS have been subsumed under Macro Management Mode of Agriculture

Question : Where or in which states the programmes of controlling land degradation are being implemented?

The states where land based programmes are being implemented are:

  • RVP/FPR- In all 28 states of India
  • WDPSCA-Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura
  • RAS- Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh.

Question : How much degraded lands have been treated so far under various schemes of the Ministry?

An area of 58.74, 22.52 and 6.1 lakh ha. have been treated under RVP/FPR, WDPSCA and RAS scheme, respectively, upto 2003-04.

Question : What is the role of NGOs in implementation of various land based programmes and procedures for allotment of funds to them?

All land-based programmes namely RVP/FPR, WDPSCA and RAS are being implemented through the state Govts. The funds under these schemes are directly released to the state Govts. There is no provision to release funds to NGOs from Govt. of India (GOI) .

Rainfed Farming System

Question : What is a Watershed?

Watershed is a geo-hydrological unit of an area draining to a common outlet point. It is recognized as an ideal unit for planning & development of land water and vegetation resources.

Question : How much area is rainfed, out of cultivated area in the country?

According to 1999-2000 statistics, a net sown area of 141.23 million hectare is under cultivation, out of which 84.58 million hectare is rainfed area.

Question : Is there any perspective plan to treat entire rainfed area in the country?

Planning Commission, in its working group report has proposed to develop all the waste land / rainfed areas (88.5 million ha.) in a period of 20 years (i.e. upto XIII Five Year Plan) at a cost of Rs.72750 crore with peoples’ participation.

Question : What is the extent of coverage of areas under various schemes /programmes of Department of Agriculture & Cooperation?

Through various watershed development programmes, about 17.6 million ha. of land has so far been developed at an expenditure of Rs.9371 crores, including external funding upto March, 2005. During X Five Year Plan about 3.4 million ha. is proposed to be developed at an outlay of Rs.2000 crore excluding externally aided projects.

Question : Which are the activities taken up under NWDPRA programme?

The activities undertaken in this programme include soil and moisture conservation measures like construction of check dams, water harvesting structures, desilting of village ponds, treatment of drainage lines/ gullies, land leveling, bunding of farms, treatment of problem soils, agro-forestry, agri- horticulture,silvi-pasture, organic farming, use of bio-fertilizers, value addition and marketing of produce through farmers groups, training & capacity building of staff & beneficiaries etc.

Question : What are the impacts of NWDPRA programme in the watershed area?

Impact evaluation studies both on the ground and through remote sensing techniques have shown that watershed based interventions have led to increase in groundwater recharge,increase in number of wells and water bodies, enhancement of cropping intensity, changes in cropping pattern, and higher yields of crops and reduction in soil losses.

Question : Which watershed development programmes of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation of Ministry Of Agriculture are being implemented?

The following watershed development programmes are being implemented by the Ministry Of Agriculture during X Five Year Plan:

Ministry Of Agriculture

  • National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)
  • Soil Conservation in the catchments of River Valley Project and Flood Prone Rivers (RVP & FPR)
  • Watershed Development Project in shifting cultivation Areas (WDPSCA)
  • Watershed Development Fund (WDF)

Seeds

Question : What are breeder, foundation and certified seeds ?

Breeder seed : Breeder seed is seed or vegetative propagating material directly controlled by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder of the breeding programme or institution and/ or seed whose production is personally supervised by a qualified plant breeder and which provides the source for the initial and recurring increase of foundation seed. Breeder seed shall be genetically so pure as to guarantee that in the subsequent generation i.e. certified foundation seed class shall confirm to the prescribed standards of genetic purity. The other quality factors of breeder seed such as physical purity, inert matter, germination etc. shall be indicated on the label on actual basis.

Certified Seed: Certified seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed and its production shall be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity according to the standards prescribed for the crop being certified. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed provided this reproduction does not exceed three generations beyond foundation seed stage-I

Question : What is hybrid seed?

The first generation resulting from crossing of two varieties or parents. Hybrid(certified) seed is the first generation resulting from the cross of two approved inbred lines or parents , one of which is male sterile.

Question : What is Labelled Seed?

The seeds of any crop varieties sold in the marked should be labeled as prescribed under Section 6 of the Seeds Act, 1966, such seeds are called Labelled Seed.

Question : What is process and procedure of certification of seeds?

  • receipt and scrutiny of application by state Seed Certification Agency;
  • verification of seed source, class and other requirements of the seed used for raising the seed crop;
  • field inspections to verify conformity to the prescribed field standards;
  • Supervision of post-harvest stages including processing and packaging;
  • Seed sampling and analysis, including genetic purity test and/or seed health test, if any, in order to verify conformity to the prescribed standards; and
  • Grant of certificate and certification tags, tagging and sealing.

Question : Which are the agencies authorised for certification of seeds?

Seed certification if voluntary in nature and anybody who is interested can undertake production of certified seed of varieties notified under Section 6 of the Seeds Act 1966. State Seed Certification Agencies are authorized to certify the seeds. At present there are 24 state Seed Certification Agencies in the country.

Question : Which are the agencies that can produce certified seeds?

Anybody willing to come forward to produce certified seed can produce certified seed. At present State Seeds Corporations, National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India, State Departments of Agriculture, Private Companies, Cooperatives and individual farmers are producing certified seed.

Question : What is the position of breeder, foundation and certified seed in the country?

The details of production of breeder, foundation and certified seeds from 2005-06 to 2012-13 are as under :-

Production of Breeder, Foundation and Certified Seed
Type of Seeds Unit 2005–06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
Breeder Seed production MT 6865 7382 9196 9441 10604 11921 12727 12371
Foundation Seed production MT 74000 79654 85254 96274 180817 180640 222681 161700
Certified / Quality seed Distribution MT 1405000 1481800 1943100 2503500 2797200 3213592 3536200 3285800

Question : what is Seed Replacement Rate?

Seed Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified / quality seeds other than the farm saved seed.

Question : What are the present Seed Replacement Rate for different crops?

For the year 2011-12 Seed Replacement Rate for Wheat: 32.55% Paddy: 40.21%, Maize: 56.58% Jowar: 23.85%, Bajra: 60.40%, Gram: 19.35%, Urd: 34.41%, Moong: 30.29%, Arhar: 22.16%, Groundnut: 22.5%, Rapeseed and Mustard: 78.88%, Soybean: 52.75%, Sunflower: 32.47%, Jute: 42.11% for the country.

Question : What are the major schemes of Government of India in the Seed Sector?

  • Central Sector Scheme - ‘Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds’ since 2005-06 on an all India basis with an objective of the ongoing scheme is to ensure production and multiplication of high yielding certified/quality seeds of all crops in sufficient quantities and make the seeds available to farmers, including those in remote areas, not easily accessible by rail/road on time.
    Name of Scheme Development and Strengthening of Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Distribution of Quality Seeds
    Types Central Sector
    Year of Commencement 2005-06
    Objectives Up gradation of infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.
    Salient features

    To develop and strengthen the seed infrastructure facilities relating to processing, storage, production and distribution of certified/quality seeds, quality control arrangement of seeds.

    To undertake measures for upgrading quality of farmer’s saved seed.

    To provide technical know-how to farmers in seed production.

    To provide assistance for boosting seed production in private sector.

    To establish and develop seed bank.

    To promote use of biotechnology in agriculture.

    To promote hybrid seeds .

    To make available seeds to the farmers during natural calamities like droughts, floods, disease outbreaks etc.

    To provide Transport Subsidy on movement of seeds for North Eastern States Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and hilly areas of West Bengal to ensure timely availability of certified /quality seeds at reasonable price to the farmers in remote areas.

    To promote seed production for exports to augment income of farmers create employment opportunities and earn foreign exchange.

    To strengthen the Seed Quality Control Organizations i.e State Seed Certification Agencies and Seed Testing laboratories to regulate the quality of seed distributed to the farmers.

    To establish and strength the National Seed Research and Training Centre (NSRTC), Varanasi to impart training to people working in the seed sector.

    To provide Secretariat support to Central Seed Committee (CSC) and Central Seed Certification Board(CSCB).

    Structure of Scheme

    Components of scheme are

    Transport Subsidy on Movement of Seeds

    Establishment and Maintenance of Seed Bank

    Quality Control Arrangement on Seeds – National Seeds Research and Training Centre (NSRTC),Varanasi (UP)

    Seed Village Programme

    Assistance for Creation of Infrastructure Facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds in Public Sector

    Assistance for Boosting Seed Production in Private Sector

    Assistance for Seed Export

    Assistance for Hybrid Seeds Production

    Use of Biotechnology in Agriculture

    Funding Pattern

    100% Assistance by Government of India.

    Eligibility

    Agriculture Department of the State Governments/Union Territory Administrations, State Seeds Corporations, State Seeds Certification Agencies, National Seeds Corporation, State Farm Corporation of India, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, State Agricultural Universities, ICAR, NCDC, Nationalized Banks Cooperatives, farmers and private sector.

    Area of Operation

    All States and Union Territories in India

    Procedure to apply

    As per detailed guidelines for each component of the scheme.

    BE Outlay year-wise during Eleventh Five Year Plan (Rs. in crores
    Year BE RE Expenditure
    2007-08 97.57 409.04 406.80
    2008-09 150.00 549.13 548.96
    2009-10 425.00 366.00 365.89
    2010-11 399.45 380.70 227.33
    2011-12 350.00 277.40 276.74
    2012-13 330.00 198.60 170.21
    Person to be contacted

    Joint Secretary (Seeds), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.

    Director(Seeds), Department of Agriculture & Cooperation Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi.

  • Seed Village Programme.
    Title Central Sector Scheme on Seed Village Programme
    Types Central Sector
    Objectives upgrade the quality of farmer saved seed which is about 60-65% of the total seed used for crop production programme
    Salient features

    (a) Financial assistance for distribution of foundation/certified seed at 50% cost of the seeds for production of certified/quality seed will be provided. The seeds of half an acre per farmer is only allowed..

    (b) To train the farmers on seed production and technology aspects training will be provided to the farmers for the seed crops grown in the seed villages @ Rs.15000/- for a group of 50-150 farmers.

    (c) To encourage farmers to develop storage capacity of appropriate quality assistance @ 33% subject to a maximum of Rs.3000/- for SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.2000/- for other farmers for procuring seeds storage bin of 20 qtl. capacity. Assistance @ 33% subject to maximum of Rs.1500/- to SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.1000/- for other farmers for making seeds storage bin of 10 qtls. capacity is available.

    Pattern of Assistance

    100% grants-in-aid

    Procedures to apply

    State Govt., implementing agencies furnish the proposal as per guidelines in the prescribed proforma after recommendation of State Govt. (for agencies other than State Deptt. of Agriculture) to Seed Division directly.

    Person to be contacted

    The Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.

    Implementation Status

    State Department of Agriculture, State Agricultural University, State Seeds Certification Agencies, State Seeds Corporation, National Seeds Corporation (NSC) and State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI), Department of State Seeds Certification, One implementing agency identified for the area/ locality and is to be authorized by the State Govt. The implementing agency may be to identify the area of better seed production and a compact area approach needs to be followed under this Programme.

  • Creation of Seed Infrastructure Facilities (For public sector agencies only)  

    c) To encourage farmers to develop storage capacity of appropriate quality assistance @ 33% subject to a maximum of Rs.3000/- for SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.2000/- for other farmers for procuring seeds storage bin of 20 qtl. capacity. Assistance @ 33% subject to maximum of Rs.1500/- to SC/ST farmers and @ 25% subject to maximum of Rs.1000/- for other farmers for making seeds storage bin of 10 qtls. capacity is available.

    Title Central Sector Scheme on Creation of Seed Infrastructure Facilities.
    Types Central Sector
    Objectives To create/strengthen infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.

    Financial assistance to implementing States / agencies are available for creating facilities for seed cleaning, drying, grading, processing, packing and seed storage.

    Salient features

    Seed Processing Plants : The assistance will be provided at the standard rate of Rs.22.25 lakhs per processing plant of 1000 MTs capacity(including construction of building and machineries/ equipments) and multiples thereof in proportion to the capacity.

    Seed Storage Godown : The assistance will be provided at the standard rate of Rs.25 lakhs per seed godown of 1000 MTs capacity and multiples thereof in proportion to the capacity.The implementing agency will have the flexibility to establish / strengthen seed processing plant or seed storage godowns of the required capacities / capacities as assessed / required by them.

    Pattern of Assistance

    100% grants-in-aid. The expenditure over and above will be borne by concerned implementing agency / State Govt. through their own sources. The land cost / registration charges if any for creating these seed infrastructure facilities is to be met by respective implementing agency.

    Procedures to apply Concerned implementing agencies furnish their proposal as per guideline in the prescribed proforma after recommendation of State Govt. (for the agencies other than State Department of Agriculture) to Seed Division..
    Person to be contacted

    The Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi.

  • Transport subsidy on movement of seeds to northeastern states.
    Title Central Sector Scheme on Transport Subsidy for the movement of Seeds to the North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Hill Areas of West Bengal.
    Types Central Sector
    Objectives To ensure supply of seeds to the farmers in time at reasonable prices in the identified States.
    Salient features

    To subsidize the cost of transportation of seeds required by the farmers in the North Eastern States including Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal and; Hill Areas of West Bengal so as to make seed available at reasonable rate as prevailing in other parts of the country.To make available seeds well in time before sowing season to the farmers in above areas.

    Pattern of Assistance

    (i) Reimbursement of 100% difference between rail and road transport charges for seeds moved from outside the state to indentified State Capital/District Head Quarter.

    (ii) Actual cost of transportation of seeds subject to maximum limit of Rs.60/quintal whichever is less is reimbursed for movement of certified seed within the state from state capital/district HQs of these States to sale outlets/sale counters.

    Procedures to apply

    State Governments/Public Sector agencies/ agencies identified by State Governments furnish the proposal based on the approved norms in the prescribed proforma.

    Person to be contacted

    The Joint Secretary, Seeds Division,Department Agriculture and Cooperation,Krishi Bhawan,New Delhi.

    Date of Start/duration

    Original Scheme is in operation since 1986-87. However, the modified scheme is in operation from 1998-99.

    Implementation Status

    Originally this scheme was meant for North-Eastern States including Sikkim. However, from 1998-99, it has been extended to other States like H.P., J&K, uttaranchal and Hill areas of West Bengal.

    Additional information

    Scheme is applicable only for movement of certified seed of cereal, oilseed, pulses, fibre, vegetable excluding potato & spices.

  • Establishment and maintenance of Seed Bank.
    Title Central sector scheme for establishment & maintenance of seed bank
    Types Central Sector
    Objectives To make available seeds for contingent situations and also develop infrastructure for seed storage.
    Salient features

    Establishment of seed bank for maintenance of foundation and certified seeds of different crops to ensure timely availability of seeds to the farmers.

    To take care of the special requirement of seed at the time of natural calamity

    To create infrastructure facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds.

    Pattern of Assistance

    Provide revolving funds for procurement of seeds ( 50 % cost of raw seed) for keeping in the seed bank.Reimbursement of maintenance cost of seed or various components like processing& packing , revalidation, transportation, storage, storage loss, insurance of seeds during storage and price differential for undistributed quantity of seeds as per norms fixed under the scheme.

    Eligibility NSC, SFCI , State seed corporations of various states and state seed certification agencies.
    Procedures to apply Physical targets of seeds for each seed corporation are fixed based on which revolving funds provided. Maintenance cost of the seeds is also reimbursed based on the proposals received from seed corporations.
    Person to be contacted The Joint Secretary,Seeds Division ,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi
    Date of Start/duration Scheme is in operation since 1999-2000.
    Implementation Status Scheme is being implemented through NSC, SFCI and seed corporations of Andhra Pardesh, Assam,Orissa Gujrat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pardesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, U.P, Uttranchal , Maharashtra &West Bengal while the benefit of the scheme is available to the entire country.
    Additional information Seed of about 20 crops of various varieties which are suitable for different agro-climatic zones of the country specially for meeting any contingent situation arising out of drought / flood situation are maintained in the seed Bank.Tables Showing quantity of seeds to be maintained by various seed corporations in the seed bank during 2012-2013 are annexed.
  • Implementation of PVP Legislation.
    Title The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001
    Types PPV&FR Authority is a statutory body established by the Central Government under section 3 of PPV&FR Act, 2001
    Objectives •To provide an effective system for protection of plant varieties and rights of farmers and plant breeders

    • To recognize the farmers in respect of their contribution made at conserving , improving and making available plant genetic resources for development of new plant varieties

    •To protect plant breeders’ rights to stimulate investment for R&D and develop new varieties

    •To facilitate the growth of seed industry to ensure production and availability of high quality seed/planting material.

    Salient features

    1.Registration of new, extant, farmers and Essentially Derived varieties.

    2.Protection of breeder’s, researchers rights farmers and community rights.

    3.Benefit sharing, compulsory licensing, compensation to farmers/ farming communities.

    Pattern of Assistance

    Not Applicable.

    Eligibility Any person mentioned in section 16 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001 may apply for registration under the Act.
    Procedures to apply The application form for registration has been specified in the Form I and Form II of the PPV&FR Regulations, 2006 and the Sixth Schedule of PPV&FR Rules, 2003. A farmer who is entitled for recognition and reward under section 39(1)(iii) of PPV&FR Act, 2001 can apply in accordance with the procedure laid down under the PPV&FR (Recognition and Reward from the Gene Fund) Rules, 2012. The farmers who are entitled for reward under Rule 70(2)(a) of PPV&FR Rules, 2003 can apply in the form specified by the Authority..
    Person to be contacted Registrar, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi-110012
    Date of Start/duration Sections 2 to 13 and Sections 95 to 97 of PPV&FR Act, 2001 with effect from 11.11.2005 and section 1 and sections 14 to 94 came into force on 19.10.2006.
    Implementation Status Active.
    Additional information •The PPV&FR Authority is actively implementing the PPV&FR Act, 2001.

    • 57 Crop species have been notified upto 31 March, 2013 for registration.

    • So far (upto 31 March, 2013) 600 certificates of registration has been issued.

    •The Authority has also started conferring Plant Genome Saviour Community recognition (with effect from 2007-08)

    • Plant Genome Saviour Community Award (with effect from 2009-10) with a cash amount of Rs.10 Lakhs per community.This has already been conferred to six farming communities.

    • Plant Genome Savior Farmer Recognition and reward has been indicated with effect from 2012.

  • Quality Control arrangement on Seed
    Title Central sector scheme for Quality Control Arrangement on Seed
    Types Central Sector
    Objectives To create/strengthen quality control infrastructure facilities for seeds – Establishing/strengthening of Seed Testing Laboratory, seed Certification Agency and Human Resource Development to ensure the quality seeds available to the farmers
    Salient features

    To establish quality control infrastructure facilities to curb the spurious seeds sold in the market.

    Pattern of Assistance

    100% grants in aid

    Eligibility State Government, State Seed Certification Agencies, Seed Testing Laboratory, Stat Agricultural Universities furnish the proposal based on the approved norms of the scheme.
    Procedures to apply State Government, State Seed Certification Agencies, Seed Testing Laboratory, Stat Agricultural Universities furnish the proposal based on the approved norms of the scheme.
    Person to be contacted The Joint Secretary,Seeds Division ,Department Agriculture and Cooperation, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi

Question : What are Genetically Modified, transgenic crop/ seed?

Genetically Modified crop contains gene or genes of a different species artificially inserted in its genome when the inserted gene sequence comes from an unrelated plant or from a completely different species, it is also known as transgenic and the resulting GM crop as a transgenic crop.

Question : How are the IPR issues being dealt in India with respect to Seeds Sector?

The department has enacted legislation known as Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 to protect plant breeder’s rights. The main objectives of the legislation are to (a) stimulate investments for research and development both in the public and the private sectors for the development of new plant varieties by ensuring appropriate returns on such investments; and (b) facilitate the growth of seed industry in the country through domestic and foreign investment which will ensure the availability of high quality seeds and planting material to Indian farmers. PVP & Farmer’s authority is being set up.

Question : What are the areas of application of Biotechnology in Agriculture?

Biotechnology is a tool that has been widely accepted worldwide for improvement of cultivars with regard to

  • Insect pest resistance
  • Tolerance to drought, cold and salinity condition
  • Nutrition enhancement
  • Post harvest quality
  • Value addition.

Apart from the above, the Task Force appointed by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation under the Chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan have recommended the following:

“Biotechnological applications should be viewed comprehensively. Both r-DNA and non-r-DNA applications such as fermentation, bio-processing, bio-pesticides, bio-fertilizers, tissue-culture, micro-propagation and related technological components which are important for Indian agriculture including animal husbandry and fisheries should be viewed as integral components of the planning and promotion of biotechnological applications in agriculture.”

Question : Is there a proposal to make a new Seeds Act and why?

Yes.During the last four decades seed production technologies have changed and new technologies like transgenic, tissue culture, soil-less agriculture etc have emerged. The economy has been substantially liberalized and the private sector is playing an increasing role in various spheres including agriculture. In the liberalized and changed environment, India is increasingly engaging in the import and export of seeds and planting materials and to take into account the changes that have happened in the Seeds Sector, the Seeds Bill, 2004 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha on 9th December 2004 so as to overcome certain deficiencies of the present Seeds Act, 1966 and to take into account the changes that have happened in the seeds sector and Indian economy. Presently the Bill is under active consideration of Parliament.

Question : What are the GM crops approved in India?

Bt.Cotton is the only Genetically Modified crop approved for commercial cultivation by Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) of Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) in nine major cotton growing states viz. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu since 2002.

Question : What are the penalty provisions for sale of spurious seed?

If any person contravenes any provisions of the Seeds Act/Rules, on conviction be punishable:

  • for the first offence with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, and
  • in the event of such person having been previously convicted of an offence under this section, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

Question : What are the rules for export and import of seeds?

Export/import are governed by EXIM Policy of 2009-14 issued by Ministry of Commerce. Under EXIM Policy, provision is made to import which governed by the New Policy on Seed Development, 1988 read with Plant Quarantine Order, 2003 and amendments made thereon. For restricted items the EXIM committee of DAC is empowered to take decision of import/export.

Question : What are the legal instruments for regulation of seeds?

The Seeds Act – 1966, Seeds Rules –1968 and Seeds (Control) Order – 1983.

Question : What is NSC?

The National Seeds Corporation Ltd.(NSC), a Public Sector Undertaking under the administrative control of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, was established in the year 1963 under the Companies Act, 1956 with the objective of producing and distributing Seeds of high quality to the farmers. The Corporation undertakes the production of seeds through Contract Growers. Presently, NSC undertakes production of seed of about 60 crops and 600 varieties/hybrids. NSC was upgraded from schedule ‘C’ to schedule ‘B’ CPSE and also awarded Mini-Ratna category-I in the year 2010.

Question : Does Government of India have its own farm to produce seeds?

Government of India does not have its own farm for production of seed, however, State Farm Corporation of India, a Government of India Undertaking operates Central State Farms in different states. SFCI was set up in 1969 under Companies Act to take quality seed production in Central State Farms. Over the passage of time keeping in view the economic viability of these farms only 5 farms have been retained and others were returned to State Governments since land was taken on lease for a prescribed period of time. principal programmes of the Corporation are (i)Production of breeder and foundation seeds of Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, etc. (ii) Certified seed production for State Seeds Corporations and other agencies, (ii) Production of "Test Stock Seed" in respect of identified 'pre-released varieties',(iv) Production and distribution of planting materials of Horticulture Crops.The total land under possession of these farms is 25736 hectare and cultivated area is 17819 hectare. The Headquarter of the Corporation is located in its own building at Nehru Place, New Delhi.

Question : What is Seed Bank Scheme?

Establishment & Maintenance of Seed Bank is one of the component of the Central Sector Scheme, “Development and Strengthening of Seed Infrastructural Facilities for production and distribution of quality seeds” is in operation since 1999-2000 onwards. The basic objective of this programme is to meet the requirement of seeds during natural calamities and unforeseen conditions. The Scheme is being implemented through NSC, SFCI and State Seeds Corporations i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Orissa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Maharashtra, and West Bengal, Kerala State Seed Development Authority and State Department of Agriculture i.e. TamilNadu & Jharkhand.

Question : Whether the PPV & FR Act is under enforcement?

The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Bill having being passed by both the houses of the Parliament received the assent of the president of India on 30 Oct, 2001. It came on the statue Book as ‘The Protection of Plant Varieties and farmers Rights Act, 2001 (53 of 2001)’.In exercise of the Power conferred under sub section (i) of the section 3 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001. GOI established the ‘Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Authority on 11 November, 2005. The PPV&FR Authority is a body corporate under the Ministry of Agriculture with Chairperson as the Chief Executive. Besides the Chairperson the Authority has 15 members notified by the Govt. of India. .

Question : What are the crops covered under the PPV & FR Act for the protection of crop/varieties?

The PPV&FR Act, 2001 applies to all plant varieties except micro-organisms. But for the purposes of registration so far 57 crop species have been notified by the Central Government under Section 29 of PPV&FR Act, 2001 (as on 31 March, 2013) i.e. Registration is open for 57 notified crops namely, Rice, Maize, Sorghum, Pear Millet, Chick pea, Green Black Gram, Lentil Field Pea, Kidney Bean, Cotton, (4 species), Jute, (2 species), Sugarcane, Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Small Cardamom, Indian Mustard, (2) Rapeseed, (2 species), Sunflower, Safflower, Castor, Sesame, Linseed, Groundnut, Soybean, Potato, Garlic, Tomato, Onion, Brinjal, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Lady’s finger, Rose, (2 species), Mango Chrysanthemum, Orchid (3 genera), Wheat (4 species) coconut, Periwinkle, Indian penywort, Blong Psyllium and Menthol Mint.

Question : To whom the farmers have to approach when the seed fail to perform?

Director of Agriculture/Joint Director of Agriculture/Seed Inspector of the areas concerned.If a variety is registered under PPV&FR Act, 2001 and if it fails to give expected performance under given conditions then the farmers can approach the Authority under Section 39(2) of PPV&FR Act, 2001 claiming compensation.

Question : Is there any facility for the farmer to get the seed tested before sowing?

Seed users and seed producers could get the seed sample tested in the State Seed Testing Laboratories with the minimum fee prescribed to obtain the result to be used as information for seeding, selling or labeling purposes.

Question : What are the measures to curb the sale of spurious/sub-standard seeds?

The Seeds Act, 1966, the Seeds Rules, 1968 and the Seeds (Control) Order, 1983 are the legal instruments to regulate the quality of seeds available in the market. The responsibility for seed law enforcement is vested in the State Governments. The Union Government has already introduced the Seeds Bill in the Parliament to strengthen and upgrade the quality control regime in the country.

Question : What are the Quality Control measures for GM Seeds?

The Ministry of Environment and Forests empowered the Seed Inspector notified Under Section – 13 of the Seeds Act, 1966 and 12 of the Seeds (Control) Order, 1983 to draw the seed samples of transgenic seeds as mentioned under Section – 10 of Environmental (protection) Act,1986 and to test in the notified seed testing laboratories in case of sale of spurious Bt. Cotton seed. Ministry of Agriculture has prescribed minimum limits of purity in respect of Bt. Cotton seed (as Bt. Protein-Toxin) under Section – 6 of the Seeds Act and notified laboratory of Central Institute of Cotton Research, Nagpur as referral laboratory for testing Bt. Cotton seeds.

Question : What is DUS Testing ?

DUS stands for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability. This is a criteria on the basis of which the Plant Breeders’ Rights will be granted to a variety by the Authority. DUS test will be used as main criteria for deciding the novelty of a variety. The formulation of National test guidelines for DUS testing has been entrusted to ICAR. Out of 35 crops DUS test guidelines for 30 crops are already prepared. Balance 5 is under finalization. DUS testing (Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability) is conducted under section 19 of the PPV&FR Act, 2001 read with Rule 29 of PPV&FR to determine the DUS characteristics of a candidate variety for the purposes of registration.

Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses & Maize

Question : What are the schemes being run under TMOP ?

  • Integrated Scheme on Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm & Maize (ISOPOM) since 2004.
  • Integrated Development of Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBO) being implemented by National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board since 2002.

Question : What are the crops and states covered under ISOPOM ?

  • Oilseeds
    • Crops: Groundnut, Mustard, Sunflower, safflower, niger, sesame, soybean, linseed & castor (first seven are edible where as last two are non-edible oilseeds).
    • States: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal - 14 States.
  • Pulses
    • Crops: Pigeon pea, gram, moong, urd, peas, lentil, moth, horse gram & Rajmash (implemented under ISOPOM from 2004-05 to 2009-10 under ISOPOM)
    • States: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal - 14 States. Pulse Component has been merged with NFSM w.e.f. 01.04.2010.
  • Maize
    • Crops: Maize
    • States: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, J & K, Tamil Nadu, U.P. & West Bengal - 15 States.
  • Oil Palm
    • Crops: Oil Palm
    • States: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Goa, Orissa, Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal and Tripura - 12 States. Last three States namely; Assam, West Bengal and Tripura have not implemented the Oil Palm Development Programme under ISOPOM. Maharashtra has implemented OPDP under ISOPOM from 2010-11.
  • Question : What are the Guidelines, Components and pattern of assistance under ISOPOM Scheme ?

    • The Guidelines of ISOPOM are available here.
    • The approved modifications in ISOPOM for Eleventh Plan (w.e.f 21.08.2007) are here.
    • The components and Pattern of Assistance for oilseeds, pulses and maize under ISOPOM (w.e.f 21.08.2007) are here.
    • The components and Pattern of Assistance for oil palm under ISOPOM (w.e.f 21.08.2007) are here.
    • The components and Pattern of Assistance for IPM demonstrations under ISOPOM (w.e.f 21.08.2007) are here.

    Pattern of funding (Centre & State)

    • The expenditure is shared between Central and State Governments on 75:25 basis except 50:50 basis for infrastructure and 100 % for publicity component.
    • 100% support to ICAR and Central Seed Producing agencies for Production of breeder seed, purchase of breeder seed, production of foundation & certified seed, distribution of certified seeds, FLDs, contract research and ongoing research on oil palm and infrastructure.