Floriculture:

 Commercial floriculture has been of recent origin though the traditional flower cultivation has been going on for centuries. Emphasis has been shifting from traditional flowers to cut flowers for export purposes. The liberalisation of economy  since 1991-92 has given an impetus to the Indian entrepreneurs for establishing export oriental floriculture unit under controlled climatic conditions. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana have emerged as major floriculture centres in recent times. At present the total area under floriculture cultivation is about 73,970 ha. with  a production of  4.60 lakh tonnes of loose flowers and 1155 lakh (numbers) of cut flowers.  

State-Wise Area and Production of Flowers

 

 

             AREA ( IN  HA )

PRODUCTION ( IN  MT )

STATE / UT's

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-00

 

 

 

 

 

LOOSE

CUT

LOOSE

CUT

LOOSE

CUT

LOOSE

CUT

ANDHRA PRADESH

7616

8420

8357

18087

22848

-

32900

-

32000

-

126609

-

DELHI

1866

1866

3450

3450

10274

-

10274

-

21007

-

21007

-

HARYANA

1850

1950

2250

2250

31120

471.

33040

483

40500

760

40500

760

HIMACHAL PRADESH

100

114

133.3

133.3

406

151.

589

185

976

181

976

181

JAMMU & KASHMIR

133

167

75

42

1

54.5 .

1.6

78.5

46

5.8

7

17.4

KARNATAKA

19656

20780

20780

20801

115600

-

124290

-

124290

-

124440

-

MADHYA PRADESH

1334

1334

1956

1387

13127

-

13127

-

1170

-

832

-

MAHARASHTRA

5439

4786

4979

6600

60012

-

33250

-

38582

-

28336

-

ORISSA

-

-

175

175

-

-

-

-

868.5

9.33

868.5

9.3

TAMIL NADU

15856

16745

17750

18120

87208

-

92097

-

133125

-

142250

-

U.P.PLAIN

160

160

160

160

-

160.

-

160

-

160

-

160

WEST BENGAL

13720

13720

10500

13227

17685

5312

17685

5312

58000

-

14644

5678

Others

3483

3494

3405.58

4174.7

7993

3.23

3305332.4

3

8598.91

 

8723.5

1.0

TOTAL

71213

73536

73970.88

88607.00

366274

6151.523

3662586.0

6121.523

459163.41

1155.13

509193.0

6806.0

 Exports of floriculture products valued at Rs. 100 crores. There has been an impressive growth in the export of cut flowers from Rs. 1 crores in 1987-88 to 100 crores in 1998. More than 170 EOUs have been approved in the sector out of which 70 units are operational. But many of them operate at less than 50 per cent of their capacity. With the growing competitiveness,  floriculture units in India have been

facing several constraints  and with redressal of the problems, the industry may turn to be viable enterprise for earning foreign exchange. 

Spices:

India, known as “Land of Spices”, is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of variety of spices in the world.  The area covered under various spices in the country is estimated to be 25.17 lakhs ha with an annual production of 29.10 lakhs tonnes (Fig-8).  More than 90% of the spices produced in the country is used for domestic consumption and the rest exported as raw as well as value added products.  The important spices produced in the country are: Black pepper, ginger, turmeric, garlic, chillies, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, celery, clove, cassia, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, saffron, vanilla and a group of herbal spices. 

State-Wise Area and Production of Spices

           A-Area: '000 ha, P-  Production ('000 tonnes)

State

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

1999-2000

 

A

P

A

P

A

P

A

P

Andhra Pradesh

406.21

888.56

378.31

647.37

395.11

746.47

395.1

746.5

Gujarat

175.17

222.59

181.15

248.00

171.33

241.66

171.3

241.7

Karnataka

259.58

202.76

220.67

170.09

235.62

181.42

235.6

181.4

Kerala

238.49

119.71

240.65

121.08

297.96

130.82

298.0

130.8

Madhya Pradesh

217.80

230.06

309.62

289.24

312.15

307.47

312.2

307.5

Maharashtra

122.96

114.41

124.66

119.21

117.19

116.13

117.2

116.1

Orissa

100.13

134.06

152.18

215.66

156.02

226.81

156.0

226.8

Rajasthan

464.48

369.52

518.22

419.28

447.27

361.08

447.3

361.1

Tamil Nadu

140.24

164.59

137.02

188.03

129.35

205.01

129.4

205.0

Others

247.15

358.74

261.82

383.06

255.17

393.59

255.1

393.6

All India

2372.21

2805.00

2524.30

2801.02

2517.17

2910.46

2517.2

2910.5

 Chillies occupies the top position amongst spices with a share of 30 per cent. Total production of Chillies in the year 1998-99 was    The share of spices in the total agricultural export during 1998-99 was about 6% with an export of 2.31 lakh tonnes earning foreign exchange worth Rs. 1758 crores.  The exports of spices and spice products during 1999-2000 was 2.09 lakh tonnes valuing Rs. 1861 crores.  Pepper was the leader in export earning with 46% share followed by Oil & Oleoresins (15%), chillies (13%) and turmeric (6%).

                                       crop-wise production of chille